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Weight and Obesity

Distressed Fat Tissue Molecules

1 year, 6 months ago

1922  0
Posted on Feb 07, 2018, 11 a.m.

 

Losing weight can be difficult journey that many struggle with. Research from the University of Exeter has found that fat in obese people becomes scarred, inflamed, and distressed which can make it even more difficult to lose as published in the journal Metabolism.

 

Losing weight can be difficult journey that many struggle with. Research from the University of Exeter has found that fat in obese people becomes scarred, inflamed, and distressed which can make it even more difficult to lose as published in the journal Metabolism.

 

Samples of fat and tissue from patients which included those who underwent bariatric surgery were collected for the researchers to conduct analysis of the health of the adipose tissue and it was found that the fat can cease to cope as it increases in size and volume being suffocated by its own expansion.

 

The increase of the fat cells’ size causes the struggle for oxygen triggering the inflammation and distress in the fat tissue. Inflammation from the distressed fat cells then spills over into the bloodstream eventually becoming measurable in the circulation by a blood test. Unhealthy and stressed fat tissue has the ability to store and accommodate increased amounts of used dietary energy. When the fat tissue is not able to do its job of storing the excess calories the excess energy can be diverted from the fat tissue to that of vital organs, leading to obesity related health issues including cardiovascular disease and liver disease.

 

Fat tissue which is fibrous is also more rigid and stiffer. Studies conducted in the past have shown that individuals who had weight loss surgery had increased levels of scarring making it harder to lose weight. Scarring of fat tissue does not make weight loss impossible, just harder. Addition of regular activity to a somewhat decreased energy intake for a longer timeframe will make the loss possible and will help the fat tissue not become further overworked, which will also improve blood sugar and assist in the management of diabetes as Dr. Katarina Koss.

 

Body shape can be changed by the scarring of fat tissue. Individuals may develop an apple body shape with a large tummy, having more fat within deeper layers of the tummy and also around the organs, while retaining thin legs and arms as there is little fat below the skin.  Even though some people may appear to be relatively slim, their can be fat deposits in their abdomen and in their internal organs, fat can also be stored in arteries causing arteriosclerosis. Stiffening of the arteries can predispose individuals to strokes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. Diabetes has also been linked to scarring of the fat tissues.

 

Abdominal adipose tissue from obese individuals that had become fibrous was studied to identify what regulates the scarring and how to possibly reverse it. Scarring of the fat tissues makes the tissue less able to expand and thus less able to store the nutritional energy surplus to its needs. The molecule LOX called Lysyl regulates the scarring by making the tissue stiffer, it was found in this study that Lysyl was more prevalent in the fat tissue of obese people, and that it was increased by oxygen deprivation and inflammation.

 

Samples who from patients who underwent bariatric surgery were compared to the properties of samples from thinner patients who had underwent elective surgical procedures, higher levels of Lysyl were found in the obese patients. Researchers noted that patients with a higher body mass index also tended to have higher levels of Lysyl gene expressed in their adipose tissue in this study. It was found to be that inflammation and low levels of oxygen were the main drivers of increased levels of Lysyl. Lysyl was found not to be influenced by significant weight loss after bariatric surgery.

 

To determine how to avoid the fat tissue from becoming unhealthy and protect it from scarring and inflammation additional research must be conducted on the subject. Evidence suggests that once the damage is done to fat tissue it may not fully recover even after weight loss. It is suggested that exercise or a walk after a meal can make a difference in metabolic health, and may help to look after the fat tissue to help it not become overworked and cease to cope.

 

Materials provided by University of Exeter.

Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

Emilie Pastel, Emily Price, Kajsa Sjöholm, Laura J. McCulloch, Nikolaj Rittig, Neil Liversedge, Bridget Knight, Niels Møller, Per-Arne Svensson, Katarina Kos. Lysyl oxidase and adipose tissue dysfunction. Metabolism, 2018; 78: 118 DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2017.10.002

 

 

 

 

 

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