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Weight and Obesity Inflammation

Insulin Resistance In Obesity

2 weeks, 3 days ago

1331  0
Posted on Jun 01, 2018, 4 p.m.

A pathway has been identified to which obesity results in reduced insulin sensitivity, this discovery could help to reduce likelihood of obesity leading to chronic health issues in the future.

 

Globesity is a growing health issue, pun intended. Body mass index of 30 or more is considered to be obese,which is a health problem that can significantly increase risks of developing a range of chronic disorders such as musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases.

Life expectancy can be shortened by ≤8 years, and decrease duration of a healthy life by ≤19 years. It is conservatively estimated that conditions related to obesity cost over 2.8 million lives each year.  Despite the well known links between obesity and development of various life threatening conditions the number of obese people has still tripled over recent decades worldwide, for example it is estimated that over two thirds of the population in the USA are now either obese or overweight.

 

Increased risks associated with obesity are due to chronic inflammatory responses, but the exact molecular mechanisms through being overweight that cause these inflammatory processes were poorly understood or unknown.

 

Effects of obesity on sugar metabolism have been identified as being mediated by a wingless type signalling pathway protein-1 adipokine that is secreted by adipocytes in abdominal fat tissue, with research showing WISP1 directly impairs insulin action in muscle cells and liver, leading to reduced insulin sensitivity.

 

Increased wingless type signalling pathway protein-1 adipokine production from abdominal fat is suspected to be one of the reasons overweight individuals have impaired glucose metabolism. Increased production and secretion from abdominal fat cells may be caused by hypoxia leading to inflammatory systemic responses.

 

Quantity of wingless type signalling pathway protein-1 adipokine in the bloodstream was shown to correlate with blood glucose levels, as well as levels of heme oxygenase-1 enzymes which promote systemic inflammation, especially in regards to obesity. Findings may provide alternative methods for treatment of obesity related diseases. Drugs which target wingless type signalling pathway protein-1 adipokine may prevent its negative effects on insulin action in liver and muscle cells.

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