Posted on Oct 07, 2018, 7 p.m.
Thymoquinone has been shown to modulate nine out of the ten hallmarks of cancer. Experts are urging more research into thymoquinone, which is the active main constituent in black seed oil, for adjuvants to pharmaceutical cancer treatments, and signalling pathways that black cumin seed oils play in being a cancer killer.
Cancer depending on what form of cancer, in the most basic explanation is cells gone wrong, the cause of is most often not discovered of which malignant cancers are the ones to be most worried about.
Many studies have shown the effects of Nigella sativa on various different cancer cells, and the list is long offering up over 57 reviewed papers on the subject finding black cumin to be effective against cancers such as blood, breast, colon, pancreatic, lung, leukemia, skin, fibrosarcoma, renal, prostate, and cervical cancer.
Anticancer effects are mediated through different modes of action including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis induction, ROS generation and anti-metastasis/anti-angiogenesis, and anti-proliferation. Additiontally anticancer activity was also found to exhibited through modulation of multiple molecular targets including p53, p73, PTEN, STAT3, PPAR, activation of caspases, and generation of ROS.
Extracted from Nigella sativa thymoquinone has been investigated for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties since the 1960 in vitro and vivo models as it may act as a superoxide and free radical scavenger to go along with preserving activity of various antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. Its anti-inflammatory and antioxidants effects have been reported in various disease models of diabetes, carcinogenesis, asthma, and encephalomyelitis.
In a large review of studies conducted on black cumin investigating its role as an anticancer agent it was explained that many active ingredients have been found within the seeds containing fixed and essential oils, proteins, alkaloids and saponin which described quantification of 4 pharmacologically important components: thymoquinone, dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, and thymol within the oil of the black seed oil by HPLC.
Black cumin has been shown to be provide effective protection against the toxicity of the drug cyclophosphamide, suggesting administration of NSO of TQ can lower CTX induced toxicity by upregulation of antioxidant mechanisms, indicating potential to minimise toxic effects of treatment with anticancer drugs.
Nigella sativa oil has been recommended as a natural radioprotective agent against immunosuppressive and oxidative effects of ionizing radiation.
Nigella sativa has been shown to inhibit colon carcinogenesis of rats in postinitiation stage in epilepsy studies, that may be associated with suppression of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa with no adverse side effects.
Antineoplastic activities of thymoquinone have been demonstrated in multiple cancers, including cancer cells have been shown to be unable to produce fibroblast growth factor and protein collagenase after being incubated with Nigella extract.
Angiogenesis was blocked by thymoquinone in vitro and vivo preventing angiogenesis in xenograft human prostate cancer mouse models, and inhibited human prostate tumor growth at low doses with almost no chemotoxic side effects.
Thymoquinone has also been shown to suppress growth and invasion, and to induce apoptosis of glial tumour cells via degrading tubulins and inhibiting 20S proteasome, telomerase, autophagy, FAK and metalloproteinases.
Thymoquinone was shown to increase sub-G1 accumulation and annexin-V positive staining indicating apoptotic induction. TQ was observed to be more potent than cisplatin in elimination of SiHa cells via apoptosis with down regulation of Bcl-2 proteins.
Thymoquinone triggers apoptotic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells via p53-dependent mechanisms, indicating TQ is an antineoplastic and pro-apoptotic against colon cancer cell line HCT116. Effects are modulated by Bcl-2 proteins linked to p53, supporting using TQ for the treatment of colon cancer; meaning that black seed oil kills cancer cells.
Autophagy is inhibited by thymoquinone, and it induces cathepsin mediated caspase independent cell death in glioblastoma cells.
Black seed oil has much potential in regards to healing to be had in regards to cancers. So much data and research is available that it makes one wonder why cancer patients are not routinely being treated with black cumin seed oil.
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– Blood cancer – El-Mahdy et al. (2005), Effenberger et al. (2010), Swamy and Huat (2003)
– Breast cancer – Farah and Begum (2003), (El-Aziz et al., 2005), Effenberger et al. (2010)
– Colon cancer – Gali-Muhtasib et al. (2004), Salim and Fukushima (2003), Norwood et al. (2006)
– Pancreatic cancer – Chehl et al. (2009), Banerjee et al., (2009), Torres et al. (2010)
– Hepatic cancer – Thabrew et al. (2005), Nagi and Almakki (2009)
– Lung cancer – Swamy and Huat (2003), Mabrouk et al. (2002)
– Leukemia – El-Mahdy et al. (2005)
– Skin cancer – Salomi et al. (1991)
– Fibrosarcoma – Badary and Gamal (2001)
– Renal cancer – Khan and Sultana (2005)
– Prostate cancer – Kaseb et al. (2007), Yi et al. (2008)
– Cervical cancer – Shafi et al. (2009), Effenberger et al. (2010)
‘Modulation of apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells) by a standardized herbal decoction of Nigella sativa seeds, Hemidesmus indicus roots and Smilax glabra rhizomes with anti- hepatocarcinogenic effects.’ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22458551 (as accessed 31 Jan 2018).
‘Protective effects of Nigella sativa oil and thymoquinone against toxicity induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide’ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20373678 (as accessed 31 Jan 2018).
‘Anticancer Activities of Nigella Sativa (Black Cumin)’ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3252704/ (as accessed 31 Jan 2018).
‘Thymoquinone as a Potential Adjuvant Therapy for Cancer Treatment: Evidence from Preclinical Studies’ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28659794 (as accessed 4 Feb 2018).
‘Thymoquinone: fifty years of success in the battle against cancer models’ https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359644613002882 (as accessed 31 Jan 2018).
‘Molecular Analysis of Precursor Lesions in Familial Pancreatic Cancer’ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235393451 (as accessed 4 Feb 2018).
‘Hormonal Contents of Two Types of Black Seed (Nigella sativa) Oil: Comparative Study’ https://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=42676 (as accessed 4 Feb 2018).
‘Thymoquinone inhibits tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth through suppressing AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways’ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18644991 (as accessed 4 Feb 2018).
‘Thymoquinone: An edible redox-active quinone for the pharmacotherapy of neurodegenerative conditions and glial brain tumors. A short review’
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332216307302 (as accessed 4 Feb 2018).
‘Anticancer activity of thymoquinone in breast cancer cells: Possible involvement of PPAR-? pathway’ https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006295211003637 (as accessed 4 Feb 2018).
Thymoquinone from Nigella sativa was more potent than cisplatin in eliminating of SiHa cells via apoptosis with down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein’ https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0887233311001366 (as accessed 4 Feb 2018).
‘Thymoquinone extracted from black seed triggers apoptotic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells via a p53-dependent mechanism’ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8338395 (as accessed 4 Feb 2018).
Thymoquinone Inhibits Autophagy and Induces Cathepsin-Mediated, Caspase-Independent Cell Death in Glioblastoma Cells’ http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0072882 (as accessed 4 Feb 2018).
‘Chemopreventive potential of volatile oil from black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds against rat colon carcinogenesis’
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327914NC4502_09 (as accessed 4 Feb 2018).
‘Radioprotective effects of black seed (Nigella sativa) oil against hemopoietic damage and immunosuppression in gamma-irradiated rats’ http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/08923970903307552 (as accessed 4 Feb 2018).